Consciencia y Sistemas conscientes

www.fgalindosoria.com/eac/consciencia/

 

www.fgalindosoria.com/eac/

 

Fernando Galindo Soria

www.fgalindosoria.com             fgalindo@ipn.mx

Red de Desarrollo      REDI

 

image011

libro Teoría y Práctica de los Sistemas Evolutivos 2.- Edición

 

Evolución y Sistemas Evolutivos, Sistemas Afectivos y Sistemas conscientes

 

Evolución y Sistemas Evolutivos          Sistemas Afectivos            Sistemas conscientes            Matrices Evolutivas y Dinámica Dimensional

 

Creación de la página  www    Tenayuca, Ciudad de México a  27 de Mayo del 2007

Últimas actualizaciones   9 de Diciembre del 2008, 9 de Julio del 2009, 6 de Febrero del 2017

 

ARTÍCULOS

 

Sistemas conscientes

página html     documento en Word   documento en pdf

 

Diapositivas    documento en PowerPoint    documento en pdf

En estas notas se presenta una primera propuesta de construcción de “sistemas conscientes”, con el fin de mostrar un camino mínimo a partir del cual se puedan desarrollar sistemas mas completos, involucrando a psicólogos, neurólogos, informáticos, matemáticos, filósofos, etc., etc., aclarando que a pesar de que representa un proceso que empezó a principios de los 70, no se llega a presentar ni un “hola mundo” de los sistemas conscientes.

Durante estos casi 40 años se han integran múltiples áreas de conocimiento incluyendo los Sistemas formales, Teorema de Gödel, Sistemas Evolutivos, Psicología, Neurología, Lingüística, consciencia, Las Enseñanzas de Don Juan, el ciclo de Regina de Don Antonio Velasco Piña, percepción; construcción de imágenes de la realidad; consciencia de si mismo, de los demás, del entorno; dialogo interno; el yo como espejo; percepción de la percepción; recursividad; lo cual junto con los trabajos de un grupo de investigación sobre el tema entre 1988 y 1993, impulsado por Cuitlahuac Cantú Rohlik, creador de los Sistemas conscientes, permitieron involucrar teoría de fractales; doble recursividad; espacios de múltiples dimensiones, etc.

Combinando lo anterior con los conceptos sobre personalización del Dr. Jesús Olivares Ceja, se presenta una primera propuesta de construcción de ““sistemas conscientes de los demás””; ““sistemas conscientes de su entorno””, y ““sistemas conscientes de si mismos””

Escrito entre 1 y el 9 de Octubre del 2009

 

Sistemas conscientes de su entorno

Diapositivas    documento en PowerPoint    documento en pdf

Escrito entre  el 15 de Enero y el 7 de Febrero del 2017

 

                                                                                                                                                     sist_conscientes_entorno.pdf

 

LIGAS A SISTEMAS CONSCIENTES

 

 

consciencia Artificial, consciencia Artificial, Artificial Conscience

Artificial consciousness, machine consciousness

 

9/10 de Junio del 2007  Número de resultados en Google de

Artificial consciousness 30,800

"machine consciousness" 32,700

"conscious computer" 13,200

“Machine Thinks” 18,100

"Cognitive Computing" 41,200

Personality computing 1,280,000

 

Resultado de búsqueda en google 29/07/2009

"artificial consciousness"   33400

"consciencia artificial"       3630

"consciencia artificial"       35800

 

"Self-Identity", awareness, “consciousness studies”, consciousness

 

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Consciousness

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness

consciencia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciencia

 

 

Artificial consciousness 30,800

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_consciousness

 

"machine consciousness" 32,700

http://www.machineconsciousness.org/overview.html

 

“Machine Thinks” 18,100

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/08/60153

 

"Cognitive Computing" 41,200

http://www.ai.sri.com/people_list/cognitive/

 

"machine consciousness" 32,700

http://www.machineconsciousness.org/overview.html

 

Can Machines Be Conscious?

Christof Koch and Giulio Tononi,  IEEE Spectrum Vol. 45, No. 6, P. 55; First Published June 2008

“Yes—and a new Turing test might prove it”

http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/jun08/6278


Actualité de la Cognition Artificielle
par Jean-Paul Baquiast et Christophe Jacquemin

Automates Intelligents, juillet 2008

Le terme de Cognition Artificielle, dit aussi de Conscience artificielle, étend considérablement l'ancien concept de robotique.
Le présent dossier collationne, entre autres, un certain nombre d'informations communiquées par notre ami Jacques Maudoux, que nous remercions.

http://www.automatesintelligents.com/echanges/2008/jui/dossierca.html

 

 

The Evolution of Consciousness

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YBHv--LoD0&feature=related

 

 

Quantum Consciousness

http://www.quantumconsciousness.org/

 

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Nokia Workshop of Machine Consciousness

Helsinki, Finland, August 21 - 22. 2008
Nokia Research Center, Itämerenkatu 11 - 13, Helsinki

http://research.nokia.com/node/704

 

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MACHINE CONSCIOUSNESS,

Hong Kong 14th JUNE 2009

“You are invited to participate in an International Workshop on Machine Consciousness, to be held in Hong Kong on the 14th JUNE 2009. 

The workshop is part of the Asia Consciousness Festival and will be co-located with the Toward a Science of Consciousness conference (to be held 12th-14th JUNE 2009).  Among the many other excellent Asia Consciousness Festival events, workshop participants may be particularly interested in the Cognitive Informatics 2009 conference (to be held 15th~18th JUNE 2009).”

http://novamente.net/machinecs/index.html

 

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The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology

by Ray Kurzweil, September 22, 2005

 ABOUT THE BOOK

The Singularity is an era in which our intelligence will become increasingly nonbiological and trillions of times more powerful than it is today—the dawning of a new civilization that will enable us to transcend our biological limitations and amplify our creativity.”

http://singularity.com/

 

The Singularity

A Special Report, IEEE Spectrum Vol. 45, No. 6 June 2008

http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/singularity

 

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Portal de Carlos H. von der Becke

Textos sobre la consciencia según diferentes autores, varios traducidos por CvdB del Dictionary of Consciousness on-line

http://www.geocities.com/ohcop/11mas.html

 

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Samuel Butler (novelist) (1835 - 1902)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Butler_%28novelist%29

 

Samuel Butler (novelist) (1835 - 1902)

“Butler was the first to write about the possibility that machines might develop consciousness by Darwinian Selection” (Wikipedia, August 1, 2008)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erewhon#The_Book_of_the_Machines

 

Erewhon

Chapter XXIII The Book of the Machines

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-ButErew-ButErew-c23.html

 

Erewhon

Samuel Butler

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-ButErew.html

 

Darwin Among the Machines
[To the Editor of the Press, Christchurch, New Zealand, 13 June, 1863.]

Samuel Butler

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-ButFir-t1-g1-t1-g1-t4-body.html

 

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Henry Stapp

After receiving his PhD in particle physics at the University of California, Berkeley, under the supervision of Nobel Laureates Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain, Stapp moved to ETH Zurich to do post-doctoral work under Wolfgang Pauli. During this period he composed an article called 'Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics', which he never sent for publication, but would become the title of his 1993 book…

Some of Stapp's work concerns the implications of quantum mechanics for consciousness.”

(Wikipedia, August 7, 2008)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Stapp

 

Henry Stapp

“some of my recent papers and communications in various versions: You can make a copy of one of them by clicking on the desired-version file.”

http://www-physics.lbl.gov/~stapp/stappfiles.html

 

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Quantum Approaches to Consciousness

Henry Stapp

Cambridge UP December 2006

http://sts.lbl.gov/~stapp/Cambridge.pdf

 

 

Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness

David J. Chalmers

Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

Published in the Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995 (Linked August 9, 2008)

http://consc.net/papers/facing.html

 

Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness

David J. Chalmers

Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

Published in the Journal of Consciousness Studies 4(1):3-46. (Linked August 9, 2008)

http://consc.net/papers/moving.html

 

David Chalmers  

I am a philosopher at the Australian National University. Officially I am Professor of Philosophy, Director of the Centre for Consciousness, and an ARC Federation Fellow.

http://consc.net/

 

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Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002)

“En 1958, revisa los planteamientos de Wiener acerca de la cibernética y propone un nuevo enfoque, propio de los sistemas complejos, que define como la 'cibernética de segundo orden'”

http://www.infoamerica.org/teoria/foerster1.htm

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinz_Von_Foerster

 

Vision y conocimiento: disfunciones de segundo orden 

Heinz von Foerster

http://docentes.uacj.mx/marroyo/txtnuevparad.htm

 

“Heinz Von Foerster...En su libro “Visión y conocimiento: disfunciones de segundo orden”, plantea: Los conceptos de segundo orden como el aprender a aprender, las metateorías, conocer el conocer, explicar la explicación... El segundo orden es la necesidad de que exista otro orden más complejo para explicar el anterior.”

Augusto Perez y Maricela Guzmán, Niklas Luhmann:  sociología y riesgo

FRACTAL Revista Trimestral, número 29 abril-junio 2003, año VII, volumen VII

 

Cibernética de segundo orden

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cibern%C3%A9tica_de_segundo_orden

 

FOERSTER, Heinz Von." Visión y Conocimiento: Las Disfunciones de segundo orden". En: Schnitman/94, conceptos de segundo orden (basado en Bateson) como el aprender a aprender, las metateorías, conocer el conocer, explicar la explicación. El segundo orden es la  necesidad de que exista otro orden más complejo para explicar al anterior

Tomado de

http://www.colciencias.gov.co/redcom/mat-comp.html

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinz_von_Foerster

 

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 Nota en el ACM sobre  "I, Computer"

http://www.acm.org/technews/articles/2003-5/0723w.html#item16

"I, Computer"

New Scientist (07/19/03) Vol. 179, No. 2404, P. 40; Aleksander, Igor

http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/phil.html

 

PRESS RELEASE Sunday, August 24, 2003 University of Essex

Ground-breaking research to develop 'conscious' robot.

Researchers at the Universities of Essex and Bristol will soon be launching a ground-breaking project to develop a 'conscious' robot.

http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=12399

 

 Machine Thinks, Therefore It Is By Michelle Delio Aug. 27, 2003

 http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,60153,00.html

 

Will a 'conscious' machine ever be built?

Scientists at MIT debate whether machines will ever be capable of human intelligence

By Nancy Weil, IDG News Service   InfoWorld December 01, 2006

http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/12/01/HNconsciousmachine_1.html

 

The Thinking Machine

By Evan Ratliff, WIRED  Issue 15.03 - March 2007

http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.03/hawkins.html

 

 

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The World in My Mind, My Mind in the World: Key Mechanisms of Consciousness in People, Animals and Machines

Professor Igor Aleksander

Publisher: Imprint Academic, May 2007

 

Purchase this Book 

 

Abstract

“Never one to dodge the big questions, Igor Aleksander tackles them head on in this latest book: Is there a ?real world? or is our awareness of one an illusion? Are animals conscious? Can machines be conscious? What is it to be unconscious? Does the ?science of consciousness? impinge on religious thought? How is consciousness affected by mental deterioration? The author is Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Imperial College, London. Well established as a skilled and provocative communicator, he addresses both the general reader and the consciousness specialist.”

 

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cognitive neurons and consciousness

neuronas cognitivas y consciencia

 

An attempt to provide a model of consciousness
Togawa, T.; Ogawa, M.
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1995., IEEE 17th Annual Conference
Volume 2, Issue , 20-23 Sep 1995 Page(s):1469 - 1470 vol.2
Summary:A neural model based on the local coding hypothesis was proposed-a group of neurons, called cognitive neurons, and a barrier, called the exclusive connection, and it was shown that consciousness and related mental processes can be explained consistently

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=/iel3/4363/12476/00579781.pdf?temp=x

 

 

Raúl Arrabales Moreno

Research Interests

Machine Consciousness (aka Artificial Consciousness, Synthetic Consciousness)
Cognitive Models of Mind
Cognitive Robotics

 

Campos de Investigación

consciencia Artificial (o consciencia artificial, consciencia sintética)
Modelos cognitivos de la mente
Robótica Cognitiva

http://www.caos.inf.uc3m.es/~raul/research.html

 

 

consciencia y Redes de Neuronas

Raúl Arrabales Moreno

Doctorado en Informática, Curso 2003 – 2004. Primer Cuatrimestre

Trabajo de la asignatura computación neuronal

http://www.conscious-robots.com/raul/files/Trabajo_CN-v6.pdf

 

 

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SSAISB Home Page

The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour

http://www.aisb.org.uk/

 

AISB’05: Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK

12 - 15 April 2005

Proceedings of the Symposium on Next Generation Approaches to Machine Consciousness Imagination, Development, Intersubjectivity and Embodiment

http://www.aisb.org.uk/publications/proceedings/aisb05/7_MachConsc_Final.pdf

 

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Nuevos pasos hacia la construcción de máquinas conscientes

Club de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica, Generado: 4 August, 2008, 02:55

www.concytec.gob.pe/clubciencias/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=782

 

Conscious-Robots

http://www.conscious-robots.com/

 

 

Can Robots Become Conscious?

By KENNETH CHANG, NYTimes, http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/misc/spacer.gifPublished: November 11, 2003
”t's a three-part question. What is consciousness? Can you put it in a machine? And if you did, how could you ever know for sure?

Unlike any other scientific topics, consciousness — the first-person awareness of the world around — is truly in the eye of the beholder. I know I am conscious. But how do I know that you are?”

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/11/science/11MACH.html?ex=1383886800&en=86849da9d5df69d2&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND

 

 

Robot Brains: Circuits and Systems for Conscious Machines

Pentti O. Haikonen

Robot Brains: Circuits and Systems for Conscious Machines, Pages: 224, November 2007

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

 

Purchase this Book  

 

Abstract

“Haikonen envisions autonomous robots that perceive and understand the world directly, acting in it in a natural human-like way without the need of programs and numerical representation of information. By developing higher-level cognitive functions through the power of artificial associative neuron architectures, the author approaches the issues of machine consciousness. Robot Brains expertly outlines a complete system approach to cognitive machines, offering practical design guidelines for the creation of non-numeric autonomous creative machines. It details topics such as component parts and realization principles, so that different pieces may be implemented in hardware or software. Real-world examples for designers and researchers are provided, including circuit and systems examples that few books on this topic give. In novel technical and practical detail, this book also considers: the limitations and remedies of traditional neural associators in creating true machine cognition; basic circuit assemblies cognitive neural architectures; how motors can be interfaced with the associative neural system in order for fluent motion to be achieved without numeric computations; memorization, imagination, planning and reasoning in the machine; the concept of machine emotions for motivation and value systems; an approach towards the use and understanding of natural language in robots. The methods presented in this book have important implications for computer vision, signal processing, speech recognition and other information technology fields. Systematic and thoroughly logical, it will appeal to practising engineers involved in the development and design of robots and cognitive machines, also researchers in Artificial Intelligence. Postgraduate students in computational neuroscience and robotics, and neuromorphic engineers will find it an exciting source of information.”

 

 

Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States

John McCarthy
Computer Science Department, Stanford University
jmc@cs.stanford.edu
http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/

1995 July 24 to July 15, 2002

http://www.formal.stanford.edu/jmc/consciousness/consciousness.html

 

 

A cognitive architecture for robot self-consciousness

Antonio Chella, Marcello Frixione, Salvatore Gaglio

Arificial Intelligence in Medicine , Volume 44 Issue 2, October 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

 

Abstract

“Objective: One of the major topics towards robot consciousness is to give a robot the capabilities of self-consciousness. We propose that robot self-consciousness is based on higher order perception of the robot, in the sense that first-order robot perception is the immediate perception of the outer world, while higher order perception is the perception of the inner world of the robot. Methods and material: We refer to a robot cognitive architecture that has been developed during almost 10 years at the RoboticsLab of the University of Palermo. The architecture is organized in three computational areas. The subconceptual area is concerned with the low level processing of perceptual data coming from the sensors. In the linguistic area, representation and processing are based on a logic formalism. In the conceptual area, the data coming from the subconceptual area are organized in conceptual categories. Results: To model higher order perceptions in self-reflective agents, we introduce the notion of second-order points in conceptual space. Each point in this space corresponds to a self-reflective agent, i.e., the robot itself, persons, and other robots with introspective capabilities. Conclusions: The described model of robot self-consciousness, although effective, highlights open problems from the point of view of the computational requirements of the current state-of-art computer systems. Some future works that lets the robot to summarize its own past experiences should be investigated.”

 

 

Los robots inteligentes tendrán tres niveles de consciencia

Sergio Moriello

tendencias21, Domingo 01 Enero 2006

http://www.tendencias21.net/Los-robots-inteligentes-tendran-tres-niveles-de-consciencia_a832.html

 

 

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CERA (Conscious and Emotional Reasoning Architecture)

 

Applying machine consciousness models in autonomous situated agents

Raúl Arrabales Moreno, Araceli Sanchis de Miguel

Pattern Recognition Letters , Volume 29 Issue 8, June 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Inc.

 

Abstract

“This paper briefly describes the most relevant current approaches to the implementation of scientific models of consciousness. Main aspects of scientific theories of consciousness are characterized in sight of their possible mapping into artificial implementations. These implementations are analyzed both theoretically and functionally. Also, a novel pragmatic functional approach to machine consciousness is proposed and discussed. A set of axioms for the presence of consciousness in agents is applied to evaluate and compare the various models.”

 

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Nuevos pasos hacia la construcción de máquinas conscientes

“Científicos de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) proponen un sistema integrado para experimentar y reproducir el fenómeno de la consciencia en sistemas artificiales.”

UC3M, Comunidad de Madrid, 07.07.2008

http://www.plataformasinc.es/index.php/esl/Noticias/Nuevos-pasos-hacia-la-construccion-de-maquinas-conscientes

 

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Modeling Consciousness for Autonomous Robot Exploration

Raúl Arrabales Moreno, Agapito Ledezma Espino, Araceli Sanchis De Miguel

IWINAC '07: Proceedings of the 2nd international work-conference on The Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, Part I: Bio-inspired Modeling of Cognitive Tasks, June 2007

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

 

Abstract

“This work aims to describe the application of a novel machine consciousness model to a particular problem of unknown environment exploration. This relatively simple problem is analyzed from the point of view of the possible benefits that cognitive capabilities like attention, environment awareness and emotional learning can offer. The model we have developed integrates these concepts into a situated agent control framework, whose first version is being tested in an advanced robotics simulator. The implementation of the relationships and synergies between the different cognitive functionalities of consciousness in the domain of autonomous robotics is also discussed.”

 

 

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The fractal nature of consciousness

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6gGxiFL8qA&feature=related

 

Integrated consciousness is a mathematical fractal of infinite dimensional space-time
India Daily Technology Team
Aug. 2, 2009 (FGS revised December 30, 2009)

http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/20857.asp

 

 

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The creation of digital consciousness

J. T. Monterege

SIGART Bulletin , Issue 109, July 1989

Publisher: ACM

 

Abstract

It is possible with the existing computer technology to construct a machine that would be accepted as a fully intelligent and conscious entity. ”

 

Full text available: Pdf ACM (519.92 KB)

http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=70636&type=pdf&coll=ACM&dl=ACM&CFID=46865330&CFTOKEN=32004224

 

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Concepts of cognition and consciousness: four voices

Bonnie A. Nardi

 

SIGDOC Asterisk Journal of Computer Documentation , Volume 22 Issue 1, February 1998

Publisher: ACM

 

Abstract

This paper considers theories of cognition and consciousness in four traditions: neuroscience, cognitive science, activity theory and the distributed cognition approach. It is most concerned with social theories of consciousness---activity theory and distributed cognition---but briefly considers biological and computational models as a foil or backdrop against which the social theories stand out more clearly.”

 

Full text available: Pdf ACM (1.83 MB)

http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=571783&type=pdf&coll=ACM&dl=ACM&CFID=46776952&CFTOKEN=58818603

 

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Book reivew: Consciousness Reconsidered by Owen Flanagan (The MIT Press. 1992)

Joseph O'Rourke

SIGART Bulletin , Volume 4 Issue 3, July 1993

Publisher: ACM

 

Abstract

“Design and manufacturing play a crucial role in the wealth creation of nations and their use of computer technology forms an important element in the process. Much has been written on the application of AI to design and manufacturing [1,2,3,5,7] in which AI has been touted to be able to increase the effectiveness and sophistication of computer applications in these areas.”

 

Full text available: Pdf ACM (603.47 KB)

http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1064733&type=pdf&coll=ACM&dl=ACM&CFID=46865330&CFTOKEN=32004224

 

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On the Evolution of Artificial Consciousness

Stephen Jones

ECAL '01: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Advances in Artificial Life, September 2001

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

 

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A Quantum Theory of Consciousness

Shan Gao

Minds and Machines , Volume 18 Issue 1, Pages: 39 - 52 , March 2008

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers

 

Abstract

“The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot "know". As a result, the consciousness observer can distinguish the definite states and their quantum superposition, while the physical measuring device without consciousness cannot do. This provides a possible quantum physical method to distinguish man and machine. The new result also implies that consciousness has causal efficacies in the physical world when considering the existence of quantum collapse. Accordingly consciousness is not reducible or emergent, but a new fundamental property of matter. This may establish a quantum basis for panpsychism, and make it be a promising solution to the hard problem of consciousness. Furthermore, it is suggested that a unified theory of matter and consciousness includes two parts: one is the psychophysical principle or corresponding principle between conscious content and matter state, and the other is the complete quantum evolution of matter state, which includes the definite nonlinear evolution element introduced by consciousness and relating to conscious content. Lastly, some experimental schemes are presented to test the proposed quantum theory of consciousness.”

 

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Self-consciousness for artificial entities using modular neural networks

Milton Martinez Luaces, Celina Gayoso Rocha, Juan Pazos Sierra, Alfonso Rodriguez Patón

NN'08: Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Neural Networks, May 2008

Publisher: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS)

 

Abstract

“One of the most puzzling cognitive features is self-consciousness. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on this question in different fields like Psychology, Neurobiology and Cognitive Science. Self-consciousness implies not only self or group recognition, but also real knowledge of one's own identity. In this paper, a cognitive architecture of self-consciousness for autonomous artificial entities (holons) is proposed. This cognitive architecture includes: abstraction, self-representation, other individuals' representation, and action modules. It also includes a learning process of self-representation by direct (self-experience based) and observational learning (based on the observation of other individuals). For model implementation a new approach is taken using Modular Artificial Neural Networks (MANN) due to their biological inspiration, modularity and adaptability. We explain the cognitive architecture that enables dynamic self-representation. For model testing a multi-holon virtual environment was implemented. We analyse the effect of holon interaction, focusing on the evolution of the holon's abstract self-representation. Finally, the results are explained and analysed and conclusions drawn.”

 

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2007 Special Issue: Principles for consciousness in integrated cognitive control

Ricardo Sanz, Ignacio López, Manuel Rodríguez, Carlos Hernández

Neural Networks , Volume 20 Issue 9, November 2007

Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd.

 

Abstract

“In this paper we will argue that given certain conditions for the evolution of biological controllers, they will necessarily evolve in the direction of incorporating consciousness capabilities. We will also see what are the necessary mechanics for the provision of these capabilities and extrapolate this vision to the world of artificial systems.”

 

PDF

http://cogprints.org/5941/1/ASLAB-A-2007-011.pdf

 

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Artificial consciousness: A discipline between technological and theoretical obstacles

Riccardo Manzotti, Vincenzo Tagliasco

Arificial Intelligence in Medicine , Volume 44 Issue 2, October 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

 

Abstract

“Artificial consciousness is still far from being an established discipline. We will try to outline some theoretical assumption that could help in dealing with phenomenal consciousness. What are the technological and theoretical obstacles that face the enthusiast scholars of artificial consciousness? After presenting an outline of the state of artificial consciousness, we will focus on the relevance of phenomenal consciousness. Artificial consciousness needs to tackle the issue of phenomenal consciousness in a physical world. Up to now, the only models that give some hope of succeeding are the various kinds of externalism.”

 

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Guest editorial: Artificial consciousness: Theoretical and practical issues

Giorgio Buttazzo, Riccardo Manzotti

Arificial Intelligence in Medicine , Volume 44 Issue 2, October 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

 

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Artificial consciousness: Hazardous questions (and answers)

Giorgio Buttazzo

Arificial Intelligence in Medicine , Volume 44 Issue 2, October 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

 

Abstract

“If human consciousness is the result of complex neural electro-chemical interactions occurring in the brain, the question of whether a machine can ever become self-aware could be a matter of time: the time necessary to fully understand the functional behavior of the brain structure, develop a mathematical model of it, and implement an artificial system capable of working according to such a model. This paper addresses several issues related to the possibility of developing a conscious artificial brain. A number of hazardous questions are posed to the reader, each addressing a specific technical or philosophical issue, which is discussed and developed in a form of a hazardous answer.”

 

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Owen Holland

Machine Consciousness

“I have been working with colleagues at other universities to establish the investigation of machine consciousness as a valid scientific enterprise,…”

http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/staff/owen/index.htm - Machine Consciousness

http://www.cronosproject.net/

http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/staff/owen/index.htm

 

From the Imitation of Life to Machine Consciousness

Owen Holland

ER '01: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Evolutionary Robotics From Intelligent Robotics to Artificial Life, October 2001

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

 

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Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness

Ron Chrisley

Arificial Intelligence in Medicine , Volume 44 Issue 2, October 2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

 

Abstract

“Objective: Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought to be untouchable by the computations, algorithms, processing and functions of AI method. Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference. Methods: The results are achieved by means of conceptual analysis and argumentation. Results and conclusions: It is shown that pessimism concerning the theoretical possibility of artificial consciousness is unfounded, based as it is on misunderstandings of AI, and a lack of awareness of the possible roles AI might play in accounting for or reproducing consciousness. This is done by making some foundational distinctions relevant to AC, and using them to show that some common reasons given for AC scepticism do not touch some of the (usually neglected) possibilities for AC, such as prosthetic, discriminative, practically necessary, and lagom (necessary-but-not-sufficient) AC. Along the way three strands of the author's work in AC -interactive empiricism, synthetic phenomenology, and ontologically conservative heterophenomenology - are used to illustrate and motivate the distinctions and the defences of AC they make possible.”

 

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Implications of resource limitations for a conscious machine

L. Andrew Coward, Tamas O. Gedeon

Neurocomputing , Volume 72 Issue 4-6, January 2009

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.

 

Abstract

“A machine with human-like consciousness would be an extremely complex system. Prior work has demonstrated that the way in which information handling resources are organized (the resource architecture) in an extremely complex learning system is constrained within some specific bounds if the available resources are limited, and that there is evidence that the human brain has been constrained in this way. An architectural concept is developed for a conscious machine that is within the architectural bounds imposed by resource limitations. This architectural concept includes a resource driven architecture, a description of how conscious phenomena would be supported by information processes within that architecture, and a description of actual implementations of the key information processes. Other approaches to designing a conscious machine are reviewed. The conclusion is reached that although they could be capable of supporting human consciousness-like phenomena, they do not take into account the architectural bounds imposed by resource limitations. Systems implemented using these approaches to learn a full range of cognitive features including human-like consciousness would therefore require more information handling resources, could have difficulty learning without severe interference with prior learning, and could require add-on subsystems to support some conscious phenomena that emerge naturally as consequences of a resource driven architecture.”

 

PDF

http://cs.anu.edu.au/~Andrew.Coward/ImpliResConc.pdf

 

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Gödel Machines: Towards a Technical Justification of Consciousness

Jürgen Schmidhuber

IDSIA, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno (Lugano), Switzerland & TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching, München, Germany

http://www.idsia.ch/˜juergen

 

Abstract.

“The growing literature on consciousness does not provide a formal demonstration of the usefulness of consciousness. Here we point out that the recently formulated Gödel machines may provide just such a technical justification. They are the first mathematically rigorous, general, fully self-referential, self-improving, optimally efficient problem solvers, “conscious” or “self-aware” in the sense that their entire behavior is open to introspection, and modifiable.

A Gödel machine is a computer that rewrites any part of its own initial code as soon as it finds a proof that the rewrite is useful, where the problem-dependent utility function, the hardware, and the entire initial code are described by axioms encoded in an initial asymptotically optimal proof searcher which is also part of the initial code. This type of total self-reference is precisely the reason for the Gödel machine’s optimality as a general problem solver: any self-rewrite is globally optimal—no local maxima!—since the code first had to prove that it is not useful to continue the proof search for alternative self-rewrites”

 

PDF

ftp://ftp.idsia.ch/pub/juergen/gmconscious.pdf

 

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The Mathematic Model of Consciousness

Zhang Yinsheng

AMS '08: Proceedings of the 2008 Second Asia International Conference on Modelling & Simulation (AMS) - Volume 00 , Volume 00, May 2008

Publisher: IEEE Computer Society

 

Abstract

“The thought referring homomorphism of a group to the model of transformation from physical structures to the psychological originated from Jean Piaget. How ever, Jean Piaget has not given a mathematic expression by which the psychological phenomena can be represented, and he has not taking the model as the common model of consciousness. In the paper, the homomorphic model of consciousness is given in a mathematic expression, by which the some important questions relevant to the consciousness are formalized and the answer can be acquired, the questions (with the followed answer solved by the homomorphic model of consciousness) are Chinese room argument, Turing machine question, Turing Test question, and about if animals have consciousness, in what the meaning of utilizing and making tools lies, if DNA and protein system have consciousness. And finally the paper concludes that consciousness exists when : (1) the units of system certainly map the entities outside the system; (2) the system operate by some rules; and (3) the rules certainly map some laws or relations in the entities. The essence of consciousness is certain correspondence between substance with some rules or laws.”

 

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How to Build a Conscious Machine

Leonard Angel

How to Build a Conscious Machine, January 1989

Publisher: Westview Press, Inc. Pages: 131, Medium: Hardcover

 

Purchase this Book  

 

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Quantum computation and the conscious machine: the reason why computers will never be smarter than people

Peter J. Marcer

AI & Society , Volume 6 Issue 1, January 1992

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

 

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“Generic Artificial Consciousness. GAC is the world's first computer program to attempt to learn from the world wide community how to be artificially conscious.”

http://www.jrwhipple.com/findit/artifical_intel.html

 

The Mindpixel Digital Mind Modeling C (pronounced “Jack,” for Generic Artificial Consciousness) is being given a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) evaluation, to see if input from thousands of contributors

has made progress toward a collective individual. Robert Epstein will supervise the test.

www.mindpixel.com

 

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Artificial Consciousness: Utopia or Real Possibility?

Giorgio Buttazzo

Computer , Volume 34 Issue 7, July 2001

Publisher: IEEE Computer Society Press

 

Abstract

“Given the current pace of advances in artificial intelligence and neural computing, the possibility of building smart machines that could compete with human intelligence now seems more likely than ever. Many researchers believe that artificial consciousness is possible and that, in the future, it will emerge in complex computing machines. The strongest motivation for constructing a self-aware machine is the innate human desire to discover new horizons and enlarge science's frontiers. Further, developing an artificial brain based on biological brain principles would open the door to immortality. Freed from a fragile and degradable body, a being with synthetic organs, including an artificial brain, could represent humanity's next evolutionary step. Such a new species could quickly colonize the universe, search for alien civilizations, survive to the death of the solar system, control the energy of black holes, and move at the speed of light by transmitting to other planets the information necessary for replication. As has proven the case with all important human discoveries, the real problem will be keeping technology under control. Should self-aware computers become possible, we must ensure that we use them for human progress and not for catastrophic aims.”

 

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HyperAudio: location-awareness + adaptivity

Daniela Petrelli, Elena Not, Marcello Sarini, Oliviero Stock, Carlo Strapparava, Massimo Zancanaro

CHI '99: CHI '99 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, May 1999

Publisher: ACM

 

Abstract

“The HyperAudio system aims at better supporting a user while visiting a museum by combining location awareness and information adaptation. This mixing of information delivery and physical space proposes new challenges for an effective human-computer-environment interaction. The HyperAudio solution interprets the visitor's behavior (i.e. physical and interactive) to create on the fly object presentations on the basis of the user model, the physical context and the history of interaction.”

 

PDF

http://reference.kfupm.edu.sa/content/h/y/hyperaudio__location_awareness___adaptiv_2601727.pdf

 

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Recent Research Tackles The Complexity Of Self-awareness

Medical News Today, Article Date: 01 Apr 2009 - 4:00 PDT

“Research developed at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid's School of Computing has applied modular neural networks to model cognitive functions associated with awareness and time-delay neural networks to temporally model self-awareness. The research, developed by Milton Martínez Luaces, was directed by the School of Computing professor Alfonso Rodríguez-Patón.”

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/144460.php

 

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